Research on Underachievement of Essential Learning Outcomes in College
"[Vincent] Tinto argued that 'quite simply, the more students invest in learning activities, the more they learn . . . . Involvement, especially academic involvement, seems to generate heightened student effort. That effort, in turn, leads to enhanced learning. As to the latter, we also know that student learning is linked to persistence.' In this line of reasoning, the focus of the college experience is on learning, which in turn may facilitate persistence. In recent decades, many have turned this argument upside down. Policy makers and practitioners alike have focused on keeping students in college, assuming that if they stay, they will learn . . . . The simple act of staying enrolled does not ensure that students are learning much." (Arum and Roksa 2011, 136, emphasis mine)
Adelman, Clifford. 2004. "'Global Preparedness' of Pre-9/11 College Graduates: What the U.S. Longitudinal Studies Say." Tertiary Education and Management 10: 243-260.
Arum, Richard, and Josipa Roksa. 2011. Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Association of American Colleges and Universities. 2005. Liberal Education Outcomes: A Preliminary Report on Student Achievement in College. Washington, DC: AAC&U.
Blaich, Charles, and Kathy Wise. 2009. "Overview of Findings from the First Year of the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education." Crawfordsville, Indiana : Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts at Wabash College. www.liberalarts.wabash.edu/storage/
Bok, Derek. 2006. Our Underachieving Colleges. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.
Dey, Eric L., and Associates. 2009. Civic Responsibility: What is the Campus Climate for Learning? Washington, DC: AAC&U.
Dey, Eric L., and Associates. 2009. Developing a Moral Compass: What is the Campus Climate for Ethics and Academic Integrity?. Washington, DC: AAC&U.
Dey, Eric L., and Associates. 2009. Engaging Diverse Viewpoints: What is the Campus Climate for Perspective-Taking?. Washington, DC: AAC&U.
Hart Research Associates. 2010. Raising the Bar: Employers' Views on College Learning in the Wake of the Economic Downturn. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Miller, Jon D. 2002. "Civic Scientific Literacy: A Necessity in the 21st Century." FAS Public Interest Report 55, no. 1: 3-6.
King, Patricia M., and Strohm Kitchener. 1993. "The Development of Reflective Thinking in the College Years: The Mixed Results." In Strengthening the College Major, edited by Carol Geary Schneider and William Scott Green. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Nie, Norman, and D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2001. "Education and Democratic Citizenship." In Making Good Citizens: Education and Civil Society, edited by Diane Ravitch and Joseph P Viteritti. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Pascarella, Ernest T., and Patrick T. Terenzini. 2005. How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Peter D. Hart Research Associates. 2007. How Should Colleges Prepare Students to Succeed in Today's Global Economy? Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
———. 2008. How Should College Assess and Improve Student Learning? Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
This list of references was attached as an appendix to the "Written Testimony on College Completion and Quality" submitted by Carol Geary Schneider, president, Association of American Colleges and Universities, to the U.S. Department of Education as part of its 2011 Negotiated Rulemaking for Higher Education (May 18, 2011).